27 April 2015

Finding "Me" Again! by Kellie Gibson

This blog is a series of stories about my journey, part of my journey is the journey of those around me, whether it be in running or in life. Kel has always been a part of what I do and over the past 3 years has had her share of ups and downs with the last 6-12months being particularly challenging. Through this time she has grown, been knocked down and gotten back up again shaping the person who she is. This blog is about her starting a new chapter and wiping the slate!

Finding "Me" Again by Kellie Gibson

A question people often ask me is “how is your running going?” This is an inevitable question for me to be asked because everyone who knows me knows that I love to run! This has been a particularly difficult question for me to answer in these last 6 months.

You see my love of running began when my husband Wes talked me into running our local 7.5km Fun Run the Edgell Jog back in September 2012. Back then I participated in other sports, and kept myself fit but I was very reluctant to enter.  Confidence is not something that comes to me naturally, in fact I have never been a super confident person and I remember saying things like “No way, I can’t run in public!” and “people will stare at me, how embarrassing I will probably come last!” I remember Wes laughing at me telling me not to be so silly and looking back now I realise just how silly it was! The race was to be held on a Sunday and I remember on the Friday 2 days before the race I mapped out an 8km course and ran just to make sure I could even run that far and of course I could! So I got home and said to Wes “Ok I can run that far, lets register me!”

Off I headed to the start line, I didn’t know what to expect, as I had never done anything like this.  I ran and completed the 7.5km in 36.32 which everyone kept telling me was a great time considering I had never done anything like that before.  I will never forget how I felt after that run, I was on a real high and was very thankful to Wes for pushing me to enter, if I had of continued to protest and not have run, who knows where I would be now…

That run definitely fuelled my love of running and it all started form there.  I started to head out for a run most days, only short distances and I never had a gps watch back then so I never kept track of performances.  3 months after the Edgell Jog once again Wes talked me into my next event, which was to be my first Trail Running event, the Running Wild Wentworth Falls Race.  I entered the 13km Short course and remember being very excited to run on the trails.  This was a lot different to the type of running I had experienced so far and I LOVED it!  I really had begun to love running in general but Trail Running - this was something else!

Quite quickly running became a huge part of my life, Wes and I were attending a lot of races, meeting a lot of new people and it was great, I had developed a new confidence and I was genuinely loving life! I got my Garmin in January 2013 and I found that this was even further motivation for me, I had been running purely for enjoyment until this point but found that having stats and seeing major improvements in time and performance just in the space of a month fuelled my passion for running even more, my motivation was through the roof.

I started to set some goals for the year and ticked them off one by one completing my first road 10km in 46:53 in Orange, my first Half in 97:23 in Bathurst and then my first Marathon in 3:46.30 in Mudgee, with many other runs in between. All was on track to complete my first Ultra at Kanangra (50km) which was my major goal for the year, everything so far was a build up to this and had gone to plan and I felt on top of the world!  Unfortunately Kanangra was called off due to bush fires.  Keen to complete my goals for the year I shifted my focus to the only other viable Ultra option on the calendar for 2013 - The Carcoar Cup 60km Ultra, it was an extra 10km than Kanangra but I had a few extra weeks to prepare so I wasn’t overly concerned.

The Lead up to Carcoar didn’t go quite to plan, a puncture wound to my foot, not being able to run for two weeks before the race, still turning up to the start line and a disappointing DNF at 42km, my Ultra in 2013 was not be! I was so disappointed but it couldn’t be changed.  

A week after Carcoar I started to feel some throbbing on the top of my 2nd Metatarsal, it was a scarily similar feeling to when I had a stress fracture in the same bone but on my other foot years earlier before I became a runner.  I went off to the Physio and it was confirmed that I had what he called a Stress Reaction, which he said was where the bone had become very broken down and brittle but it hadn’t actually cracked yet.  So even though I had dodged a major bullet and didn’t end up with a stress fracture I was devastated that I needed to have 6 weeks off running!

Cross Training it was for 6 weeks! I hit the gym everyday, cycling, elliptical training, rowing, I was keen to keep my fitness up for a smooth transition back to running. 6 weeks of cross training but the pain was still there! To be honest I didn’t enjoy hitting the gym at all, I just wanted to be outside and running, I just didn’t get the same feeling from it that I did from running and I lost a fair bit of motivation and my visits became less frequent.  It ended up being almost 8 weeks before I could start running again.

Being able to finally run again felt great but it was short lived, I ended up with an ITB injury and then Shin Splints, all the issues were happening in the same leg which made it obvious that after my initial injury I had ended up with some biomechanical issues! I kept trying to do too much too soon, I wanted to get back out there and do what I loved so badly!

After finally rehabbing the injuries properly and some great advice and a program from my running buddy Shan who happens to be an excellent Exercise Physiologist, I was getting back into running properly again in June.  My results started to improve again and I felt like I was getting back to my normal self again – woo hoo, finally!

In July I started my Saturday long runs with Shan again and started training with Peta once a week as well.  Having two people who were faster than me as training partners was so beneficial, I started to get my 10km time down, training was going well and I was building back up again!

In November I had decided to head back to Carcoar to compete in the Half Marathon this time.  I had a great run, far from my best time but a real sign that I was on my way back.  I remember crossing the finish line and I kept running over to Wes who said “um you can stop running now, its over” but I had something exciting to tell him, I had just done my first ever sub 4 minute km in the second last km! I was over the moon, I couldn’t wipe the smile off my face. Such a bitter sweet day for me, one year on from where it all fell apart exactly one year earlier it was just coming together again!

In the week following Carcoar I had a terrible outbreak of pimples, this had happened to me a year earlier but my Dr had prescribed antibiotics for 6 months and changed my Contraceptive Pill and it went away.  But now it was back, I had a lot of issues dealing with the acne because I had never had it in my life, not even as a teenager. I became really self conscious about it and I just wanted to hide, it really got me down. Back to the Dr I went and I was prescribed a different antibiotic this time.

Within 3 days of taking my antibiotic if felt so sick and dizzy all the time, I contemplated stopping taking it but I wanted to see if my body got used to it and I was really keen to clear up my acne.  I persisted for a month with it until I had had enough I just couldn’t do it anymore.  While I was taking the antibiotic my performance dropped significantly, my heart rate became really erratic. I was sure once I stopped the medication I would be fine.  A month later, my performance was still terrible, most of my runs were averaging a minute to a minute and a half longer per km than they were in the month before I had started the medication.  It was really getting me down, running became a major frustration for me as opposed to something I enjoyed.  Running didn’t feel like it used to, it became such a struggle.  I persisted in the constant hope that I would find that feeling again of why I loved to run so much!

Many months passed and I kept running but there was no change, I had been back and forward to the Dr, I was still having issues with an erratic heart rate while I was running, feeling more and more fatigued as time went on and eventually finding it hard to even get out of bed.  This made me start to get really depressed and I was finding it hard to function particularly as a mum and with running my own business. It was really starting to impact my whole family.  I had been sent for countless blood tests and each time they kept coming back all clear! It was getting frustrating, each time I had a test done I was hoping they would find something, I got to the point where I didn’t even care what that something might be, I knew that things weren’t right and that if I could just get a answer then I could start the process of getting better. I was sent to the Cardiologist for an Echocardiograph, then an Exercise Stress Test and then I had to wear a Holter Monitor for 24 hours and do a 2 hour run while wearing it.  Thankfully all of these tests on my heart came back clear and it was determined that I had a very strong and healthy heart.  While this was such a relief, I was still dealing with all of these issues that were getting progressively worse and left thinking what could it be?!

Finally at the end of March a test was done on my hormone levels and it was determined that my Testosterone levels were at an extreme low. Interestingly they had a result on file from a previous test from a few years ago and my levels had decreased by over 75%, which my Dr described as very alarming.  So from there I was diagnosed with an Endocrine Disorder.  After doing my research I realised just how important a role hormones play in our bodies, they basically act as chemical messengers to various parts of our bodies and if the messages aren’t getting sent correctly the whole body suffers and does not function as it should.  Testosterone is primarily a male hormone, women produce this hormone in much smaller amounts but it is still vital for the female body to function efficiently.  The main side effects of having low testosterone are muscle loss and weakness, lack of recovery and adaptations from training, bone weakness, fatigue which is unrivalled by sleep, mood swings and depression. Yep, that sounds like me!  After a bit more research I found that the contraceptive pill I had been prescribed is designed to block testosterone and that it was probably not a great option for me so I stopped taking it.

Within 2 weeks of not taking it I would say I went from feeling about 40% to feeling about 70%, which is still not ideal but it made such a massive difference to how I felt in such a short space of time! Getting out of bed was getting easier, the fatigue and brain fog was starting to clear! What a relief! The plan was to have my levels tested again one month after to see if it had made a difference. What good timing, it was now April and time for me to run in the Sky 26er at the Buffalo Stampede. Was I nervous? Yes! Even though I had still been able to train, the intensity and duration to get through an event like this in the manner I would have liked were impossible given my situation!  So I refocused my goals and realised it didn’t matter about what time I did, all that mattered was getting through it, crossing that finish line and getting a bit of confidence back.

A few days before the race it was announced that the course was going to be longer due to the need to change the route due to fire damage.  It went from 26km with 1555m elevation gain and loss to 32km with over 2000m elevation gain and loss! This made me more nervous but I was ever so keen to rise to the challenge to prove to myself that I could do this! I entered the race with the Mantra “This is going to make you strong again” I had to repeat this to myself so many times throughout the 5 hours and 12 minutes that it took me to complete the course, whenever I felt the slightest bit of pain or doubt I said to myself “This is going to make you strong again” and it shifted my focus. I have never entered a race with a mantra before, I had heard a lot of talk amongst other runners about race mantras and knowing this was going to be the toughest thing I had ever pursued in running I decided to give it a try. Did it work? Yes, it did! I think having such an emotional ride to the start line of this race allowed me to come up with a mantra that meant so much to me and I truly believe that the mental focus this gave me is what allowed me to finish so strong. Its amazing how you can be hurting so much but also be enjoying it so much at the same time, I was just really happy being out there doing what I love.  Being mentally strong during racing is one thing I have always struggled with and I think I really turned a corner that day!

To be honest my recovery has been very slow since the Stampede, I fell into a bit of a heap the week after which shows that even though I am feeling better it is going to take a while for me to get back to where I need to be and I really need to be wary of doing too much too soon. But I would not change a thing, running in the Stampede was such a valuable experience for me, I learnt a lot about myself on that run. After months of believing that I couldn’t do things like that anymore, I gained the confidence that it really is possible that I can challenge myself to whatever I set my mind to and that being mentally strong can make such a difference in a tough situation.  I am sure I will be able to draw on this experience in future races.

Last week I came across a book which was on pre-order and was actually released only yesterday (26th April) “Healing The Grumpy Athlete”.  The book is written by Triathlon Coach Katee Pedicini who has been through a very similar situation to me.  Only a few pages into the book it had me in tears.  Katee wrote “In an attempt to fill the gaps of my life I found triathlon. I found identi­ty, I found confidence, I found joy, I found me.   So off I went filling the gaps of my life with hard arse training ses­sions and equally brutal races. I now had identity, confidence, joy and a sense of self - BUT, eventually I was robbed.  I was robbed of energy, vitality and motivation. My oestrogen was pulled one way and testosterone the other. My body responded with a hormonal mess of pimple break­outs, weight gain and endless tears.” As I read this tears rolled down my face, I was a sobbing mess! If you changed all of the triathlon references to running it was like Katee had found the perfect words to sum up my experience.

It has been a very emotional journey for me, one that I have largely kept to myself except for a few people that I knew I could trust.  I didn’t want to put it out there and use it as an excuse for bad performances. I think these days particularly on social media people put a lot of pressure on themselves and make excuses for bad performances, some are more legitimate than others but many use health as an excuse for missing the podium or for a goal not achieved, I didn’t want to look like another one of those but as a result I felt quite isolated in my experience.  My main reason for writing this is as a part of the healing process, I feel that my experience has taken so much out of me physically and emotionally and I am now ready to take it head on. Sometimes getting it all out is great therapy! I have only scratched the surface of Katee’s book but believe that it will greatly assist me and further motivate me to overcome my issues.  A quote taken from the book will be my main motivation and I will remember this every time things get tough “The secret of change is to focus all of your energy not on fighting the old, but building the new.” – Socrates. And that is exactly what I will be doing for the rest of the year, recovering and building the new. No time goals, no pressure just finding that balance and enjoying running again! I know that this experience will make me a much stronger person in the long run.

2013, This is my motivational pic!
At Buffalo, smiling through the pain!
Lastly I would like to say what a caring and patient man I married, he has been there through every step of the mess that has been this last 6 months. He has been there through all the tears, the mood swings, the melt downs, the absent mindedness, and brain fog, he has picked me up every time I became unmotivated and helped me stay on track, he took over so many responsibilities with the kids that I became unable to cope with at times. He could have walked away so many times but he stuck by me every step of the way and I am forever grateful for this. I would also like to thank Shan for being an amazing friend, you were always there to listen and I thank you so much for all your support, its always the tough times that reveal true friends!

16 April 2015

Reflections of a Broken Stampeder

Kel had just finished - super proud of her!!!
Buffalo Stampede 2015

Where to start…

When so much has been invested in something we all believe that the fairytale will happen and the ending will be perfect. Unfortunately the script that was written over the weekend down at Bright for the Buffalo Stampede Skyrunning Oceania Championships was different to the one I had been envisaging in my mind. With time past over the last few days to reflect it’s quite ironic that even though it most certainly didn’t provide me with my performance based goals I would not change a thing. And that everything happens for reason.

I was in great shape for this event and had undertaken a calculated preparation that was entirely focused upon the specific aspects of the brutal and challenging 75.5km Skyrunning course that Sean Greenhill has created. I had began building in November and this training evolved to the point where my numbers all indicated I was ready to race come April 11, and that is what I intended to do. I knew the course having done it before and after attending and coaching at Skycamp, furthering this knowledge with another trip to Bright in January to get some more course time under the belt.

Buckland Aid with Mark Lee
At this point I was well aware of the new Skyrunning Series for ANZ and was really hoping for a good performance in the April race. I also knew it was going to be tough going as both the course and the competitive field would ultimately lead to fast times and more risk being taken.

As I approached April I was carefully planning my preparation in training, setting goals and mentally readying myself for the event. I was also coaching Kel towards her Sky 26er event and we were starting to get knowledge of what medicial issue was causing her so much trouble and it looked as though things were on the improve. March had been a positive month with only a small mishap in training so all was on path for both Kel and I and we were looking forward to the Stampede.

Summing the ultra course up isn't easy, it is a beast from start to end. There are seven climbs, some utterly daunting and the others are brutal offering steep climbs and quad thrashing descents. The trail surface is mixed from hard packed firetrail, smooth flowing fire trail, downhill MTB single track and super technical rocky single track, with the variance in my opinion providing the great challenge for runners to prepare for. The climbs/descents all appear easier on paper and need to be respected or they will bite and the last 15km is close to the toughest of any race anywhere.

Descending of Clearspot at 67km is the hardest 2km I
have ever done - both times!
There was also great progress for both the Buffalo Stampede and Skyrunning in Australia in the lead up to April. The event had three races across Friday, Saturday and Sunday with entries being higher than last year, there were even some lunatics that thought it appropriate to attempt the Grand Slam – 26er, Ultra and Marathon! Skyrunning ANZ had attracted some quality runners from both home and abroad to compete in all events as well as establishing an Oceania Series across Australia and New Zealand. Runners from NZ, Europe, South Africa, the UK and Nepal all coming credentialed with many successful races across the globe. But for me it was Martin Dent that stood out. He is an Olympic and Commonwealth Marathon runner with a brilliant career highlighted with many victories and a superfast marathon pb! He now seems to be embracing new challenges and like the rest of us is learning his way towards the finishline at a Skyrace.

Wheels fallen off - time to reset.
We arrived in Bright on Thurday and by the time Friday had arrived, so had the realisation for Kel that she was about to undertake her longest run to date in sense of time on feet. The 26er was now 32.7km with 2050m +d and km for km rivaled the Ultra in terms of difficulty. She set off and I went up to the first road junction to cheer her along, Mark Lee was there as well and we offered encouragement to all the runners who had just completed their first major climb and descent of the day. Kel went through in great spirits and on track and this left me feeling content she would nail this little beast good and proper. I decided to go back to the junction to watch her come off Apex and head toward the final climb and descent to Bright. She came through looking so strong and smiled as she left the dusty flowing single track and hit the fire trail up the short but shockingly steep final hill that greeted runners at 29km. I then rushed back to the park to watch her finish and complete the 26er course and her first skyrace, I was so proud of her!

Running with a purpose all was going well...
and then I went across the bridge at Eurobin.
The atmosphere was surreal at Bright, there was a new energy injected into the event with the 26er. Bright is a special place, the Buffalo Stampede a special event and the Australian trail community is benefiting from events like this. The weekend provided memories, experiences and challenges for all and I'm hard pressed to think of any other sport that allows this to occur at every level for everyone involved.

Reflecting on my race has been difficult and this has been rewritten a few times. I am disappointed with my time as it's way outside my goal of sub 10 but I am also proud to have finished results aside. I have no real answers other than I missed the mark by a long way, no excuses either, what happened simply happened and I must learn from it if I expect to improve. I will be back for this race and while I know it's a bloody tough gig I'll be expecting if I prepare well to get that sub 10.

The last stretch into the finish
From Eurobin onwards I had to battle and was never comfortable in any way. My quads were cramping, thoughts were negative and I had over done my nutrition. I knew I needed to reset at the Chalet, I was desperate for that climb to be over but it was going on forever. At that point I just needed to suck it up and get to the top, there was no other option.

Mentally I feel this run has been vital. I probably was a bit soft and in the past melted when the heat got turned up. It was easier to stop, 8hrs + of pain could have ended at 4.5hrs in but quitting wasn't an option. I have put way too much into the race, my family had given up too much and I had to finish what I had started even though my race was not turning out the way I had wanted.

Finish line 11:11:5X not the result I wanted
but I finished.
I will spend time looking over my race but for me in the end it was a win. I was certainly chewed up and spat out by the course and my race made for a long day out, the second longest time I have run for in fact. But I won’t dwell and think of what if or what could have been, there is no point and whom would I be kidding anyway. I was at points where I wanted to be and I definitely nailed sections the way I set out to but there was the other side of the coin and this shows work is still required. I didn’t pull out and I was flexible with my plan, these along side a massive mental test are the positives I’ll be taking from the race into the future. Will I have another problem? Maybe, probably, who knows? But I think I am more equipped to manage it having run the race I did.

Off and racing!!!
One thing I know is that without Kel in my corner crewing for me it would have been very different. No matter what thoughts I had before each checkpoint from the Chalet to Bright I was assured of having someone who knew what I wanted and had done in training. She was tough but made choices that were beneficial and needed at the time and I'm indebted to her for this. They say sometimes tough love is needed and that is true, but having a crew who know what your limits are and will not let you give up easy is just as essential as training, especially when things hit the fan.

It was amazing outside of my own selfish feelings to see people I care about succeed too. Brendan's 2nd in the 26er, Kel finishing in such a positive manner and my training buddy Blair Hurst taking 4hr 50min off his ultra time from last year running 10:30 and finishing in the top 20, all being great highlights. Sometimes I get too caught up in my own running and need to look around a bit more as it's just a running race and everyone is doing the same thing ultimately.

Clarkey had some quotes from the weekend that stood out for him and he had the quote that stood out for me, “Numbers mean nothing in training, it is what happens in the race that counts”. So true, and by the way he ran awesome and was rewarded with a massive pb. Now it is time to move forwards and onto the TNF50 in May. I have 5 weeks to rest, recover and prepare for this event and I’ll be doing all I can to ensure I make the start line healthy, fresh and ready to go.

Blair "Hursty" Hurst - 10:30 and a massive PB 

Photo Credits

Kel Gibson
Ben Van Steel
Brendan Davies


Hammer Nutrition
Inov 8 Waist Down
Hammer Clothing Waist Up
Ultraspire Packs
Time Piece Suunto Amibt Sport 3 (lasted 10:47 just over expected full mode battery life)

Big thanks must go to my supporters;

Hammer Nutrition
Barefootinc/Inov-8 Australia
Mountain Sports
Sydney Trail Series

3 April 2015

The Sharpening Phase

The Sharpening Phase

As with any program doing the final block of preparation for a goal event is key for optimal performance. Many refer (see references) to this period as the “sharpening phase” and it normally lasts for roughly 4 – 6 weeks depending on the race being undertaken. I truly believe this period is very important to really apply the principle of specificity to training and that this phase should most definitely be of a higher intensity than the build phase, but still a high training load.

Descending Scotsman Hill in King of the Mountain
My last 5 weeks have been about developing my fitness in the key areas for the Buffalo Stampede Ultra next weekend. I had a transition week and two fortnightly blocks that I used to really push my comfort levels in an attempt to get the final bit of conditioning I believe is required for me to complete such an event successfully. This method can be walking a fine line and once again I was very much aware of what I had done incorrectly in 2014 and was keen to not make similar errors that would lead to injury or wasted training.

I broke my program down into three areas; aerobic, anaerobic and strength. This was the focus of each session and I employed a particular methodology to my program. I will explain below how I attempted (see references) to develop each aspect over this period;

-       Aerobic: as an ultra race is on the cards my volume had to be high. I set aside a minimum of 4 runs that were specifically aimed being at least 60min and working between 50 – 75% max effort levels, including two longer specific runs weekly. I was allowing my body to be conditioned to the stress of Buffalo at an intensity level similar to that of what I will be operating at during the race. During my aerobic sessions I included steep, rocky and technical hills, both up and down to try and replicate the muscle memory needed on the climbs in a Skyrunning race.
-       Anaerobic: my anaerobic base was sound so I attempted to develop this threshold by including additional interval work and long higher intensity sessions. I began rep based track work, focused on a control run mid week and added a tempo/steady run of a longer duration to my program. This indicated my form and fitness and included three races of varying distance that all had very important elements similar to those that will be undertaken at Buffalo.
-       Strength: I had put a lot of work into my strength over Summer and was really keen to top this work off with some high impact strength sessions. I took part in some CrossFit 2795 sessions and began plyometric work as well as continuing with my balance based strength work. I felt that I was able to round out my regime with some good sessions allowing me to cut to race weight, engage my fast twitch muscle fibres and take the muscle through a greater range in each activity.

I was able to manage some very good training over this phase and am happy with where I am placed leading into my first goal of 2015. I have been able to train consistently well and avoid injury, this combined with a greater idea of what is required in the race allows me to move into my taper with confidence that I can develop a plan that will allow me to reach my goals. I have been looking at the race for five months now and while my focus has been all about Buffalo it is only now I will start to work the finer details for race day. I have my nutrition down after a couple of practice runs, my gear is now sorted and within the next few days my plan, splits, strategy, etc. will come into place.

On way to 2nd (blowing up) and 1st in
the series at STS
Nutrition (Supported by Hammer Nutrition)

-       Perpeteum – 1.5 scoops to 500ml water for 3hrs.
-       Gels – 1 each 45min or as needed.
-       Endurolytes – 1 each 30min
-       Fizz – 1 to 150ml water at each crewed aid station.


-       Shoes – Inov8 X-Talon 200
-       Shorts – Inov8 Race Elite 210 Trail Short
-       Shirt – Hammer Nutrition Race Tank
-       Visor – Hammer Nutrition Headsweat
-       Pack – Ultraspire Omega or Surge (weather pending) 1.5 litre bladder + 500ml soft flask.
-       Watch – Suunto Ambit Sport 3

I was happy to have been able to have a successful series of races during this period as well, my results are as follows;

-       Lithgow King of the Mountain: 2.2km 150m + 13:34 1st Place.
-       STS Manly Dam Big Dam Run: 30km 750m + 2:22:44 2nd Place.
-       Orange Volcanic MountainChallenge (NSW Mountain Champs): 11km 550m + 52:08 5th Place.
* I also won the long Course Summer Series at STS placing 3rd, 3rd, 2nd and 2nd in the four events from December to March.

So Buffalo is now just around the corner and I am looking forward to putting into play all the training I have completed over the last 25 weeks. I am genuinely excited to see how Bright comes alive for this massive weekend of running and getting to race alongside some of the best local and international athletes. The atmosphere will be rad!

I am also looking forward to watching Kel take part in the 26er. She has been doing it tough lately, being diagnosed recently with an endocrine disorder after 5 months of unknown illness which has greatly affected her running and overall wellbeing.  Hopefully this race can be a springboard to her having a great back end of the year.  Over winter there will be some change required to my training to accommodate more support and balance to my family life, and I am looking forward to simplifying things even more and enjoying time with my family just that bit extra and a nice holiday over the cooler months.
With Womans winner, Megan Reeves, who
was 2nd to the top of the hill!!!!


Lactate Threshold Concepts. Faude, Kindermann & Mayer, 2009

Lactate  - A signal of coordinating cell and systemic function. Philip, MacDonald & Watt, 2005

The Impact of Rest Duration on Work Intenisty and RPE during Interval Training. Seiler & Hetleid, 2005

Relationship Between Repeated Sprint Performance and both Aerobic and Anaerobic Fitness. Dardouri, et al., 2014

Effects of Plyometric Training on Endurance and Explosive Strength Performance in Competitive Middle and Long-Distance Runners. Rami-Rez-Campillo, et al., 2013

Essentials of Exercise Physiology. McArtile, Katch & Katch, 2000

Photo Credit

Lithgow Mercury - Fairfax Media

Geosnap Shot